Black Hawk (1767 A.D – 1838 A.D), chief of the Sac, or Sauk, Native Americans. His Native American name was Ma-ka-tae-mish-kia-kiak. In 1804 A.D the Sac and Fox agreed, for an annuity of $1000 dollar , to cede to the United States their lands east of the Mississippi River. He promptly repudiated this agreement, declaring that the whites had persuaded the Native Americans to sign it after making the Native Americans drunk. In the War of 1812 A.D, He fought with the British against the United States.
The cession of the disputed territory was again arranged by treaties signed in 1815 A.D and 1816 A.D, and in 1823 A.D most of the Sac and Fox settled west of the Mississippi. When white settlers began to occupy the vacated lands, He once more refused to recognize the agreement. The Native Americans were, moreover, suffering from too much hunger in their new, less fertile lands, and so in April 1832 A.D they returned to the disputed territory to plant crops. The white settlers shot a peaceful emissary sent by him and thus began the so-called Black Hawk War (see Indian Wars).
The Native Americans were defeated near the Wisconsin River on July 1832 A.D, and they were defeated again in the Bad Axe Massacre on August 3; he surrendered on August 27. The Sac and Fox were settled soon afterward on a reservation near Fort Des Moines, Iowa, where he died. He bones were eventually exhumed and put on display in an Iowa museum, where they were destroyed by fire in 1853 A.D. He wrote The Autobiography of Black Hawk (1833 A.D).
He disputed an agreement made between members of his tribe and the United States government over the sale of the tribe’s lands in Illinois. Black Hawk claimed that members of the tribe had been given liquor before they signed the documents. In 1832 A.D Black Hawk was defeated in what became known as the Black Hawk War. This 1833 A.D painting by John Jarvis portrays the celebrated Sac Chief and his son.His death on 1838 A.D.
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